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courses:446:2013:446-2013-2:constructing_a_model_of_the_cochlea_from_oct_images [2013/05/10 18:55]
pwilken3@johnshopkins.edu [Technical Approach]
courses:446:2013:446-2013-2:constructing_a_model_of_the_cochlea_from_oct_images [2019/08/07 16:01] (current)
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 ======Constructing a Model of the Cochlea from OCT Images====== ======Constructing a Model of the Cochlea from OCT Images======
-**Last updated: 5/​10/​2013 ​14:05 by pwilken3**+**Last updated: 5/10/2013 by pwilken3**
  
  
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   * **Mentor:** Russell Taylor and Jin Kang   * **Mentor:** Russell Taylor and Jin Kang
  
-{{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​cochlear_implant.jpg?​nolink&​300|}} +{{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​cochlear_implant_captioned_.jpg?​nolink&​300|}} 
-{{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​system_diagram.png?nolink&300|}}+{{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​system_diagram.jpg?direct&300|}}
 ======Background,​ Specific Aims, and Significance====== ======Background,​ Specific Aims, and Significance======
 In order to access the cochlea, the surgeon must first perform a mastoidectomy and cochleostomy. The mastoidectomy machines the flesh (mastoid cells) around the cochlea, and the cochleostomy drills a hole into the temporal bone. Once this is complete the round window, the most direct entrance to the cochlea, is accessible. The surgeon then inserts the implant until the desired position is reached. This is typically just before the basal turn, which is the first turn in the spiral of the cochlea. This location is communicated by way of a marker on the implant itself. Once this marker reaches the site of the cochleostomy,​ the implant should be at the proper depth. The surgeon then grips the stylet, a wire that keeps the implant straight, and continues to push the electrode array. Because the electrode array is naturally curved, removing it from the stylet causes it to curve into the spiral of the cochlea and the insertion is then complete. In order to access the cochlea, the surgeon must first perform a mastoidectomy and cochleostomy. The mastoidectomy machines the flesh (mastoid cells) around the cochlea, and the cochleostomy drills a hole into the temporal bone. Once this is complete the round window, the most direct entrance to the cochlea, is accessible. The surgeon then inserts the implant until the desired position is reached. This is typically just before the basal turn, which is the first turn in the spiral of the cochlea. This location is communicated by way of a marker on the implant itself. Once this marker reaches the site of the cochleostomy,​ the implant should be at the proper depth. The surgeon then grips the stylet, a wire that keeps the implant straight, and continues to push the electrode array. Because the electrode array is naturally curved, removing it from the stylet causes it to curve into the spiral of the cochlea and the insertion is then complete.
  
 {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​phantom_insertion.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}} {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​phantom_insertion.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}}
 +
 +<​html><​center></​html><​fs x-small>​Cochlear Implant inserted to Ideal Insertion Point in Cochlear Phantom</​fs><​html></​center></​html>​
  
 Aims: Aims:
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 {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​project_flow_2.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}} {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​project_flow_2.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}}
 +
 +<​html><​center></​html><​fs x-small>​Project Workflow</​fs><​html></​center></​html>​
  
 This project is significant because cochlear implant insertion is a difficult procedure that has widespread use. As of December 2010, 219,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants [8]. The market for cochlear implants is large, and several companies are working to develop cochlear implants that are easier to insert. Cochlear is a company that is working closely with ERC CISST to develop implants suited to a robotic system for this insertion, and their investment of time, effort, and resources showcases the potential effect this system can have once implemented. The methods used in this project also have potentials applications to other surgical procedures, as they increase the overall safety of the surgery by constraining the movement of the robot. This project is significant because cochlear implant insertion is a difficult procedure that has widespread use. As of December 2010, 219,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants [8]. The market for cochlear implants is large, and several companies are working to develop cochlear implants that are easier to insert. Cochlear is a company that is working closely with ERC CISST to develop implants suited to a robotic system for this insertion, and their investment of time, effort, and resources showcases the potential effect this system can have once implemented. The methods used in this project also have potentials applications to other surgical procedures, as they increase the overall safety of the surgery by constraining the movement of the robot.
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 **Side-viewing Probe Imaging** **Side-viewing Probe Imaging**
-{{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​sideview_probe.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}}+{{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​sideview_probe_w._image_credit.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}}
  
-<fs x-small>​Side-view Probe Setup</​fs>​+<​html><​center></​html>​<fs x-small>​Side-view Probe Setup</​fs><​html></​center></​html>
  
 A probe has been developed that uses an angled fiber to capture OCT A-scans out of a window drilled into its side. It can be mounted to a motor that turns the sideview probe, enabling it to create B-scans out of the A-scans it receives and create a contour that shows a 360 degree view of its surroundings,​ up to 5 mm. When inserted into the cochlea, it can give contours at several depths, which can then be stitched together into a model of the cochlea. These contours are also useful for virtual fixtures, which is discussed below. A probe has been developed that uses an angled fiber to capture OCT A-scans out of a window drilled into its side. It can be mounted to a motor that turns the sideview probe, enabling it to create B-scans out of the A-scans it receives and create a contour that shows a 360 degree view of its surroundings,​ up to 5 mm. When inserted into the cochlea, it can give contours at several depths, which can then be stitched together into a model of the cochlea. These contours are also useful for virtual fixtures, which is discussed below.
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 **Bulk Scan Imaging** **Bulk Scan Imaging**
 {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​img_1785.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}} {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​img_1785.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}}
 +
 +<​html><​center></​html><​fs x-small>​Bulk Scanner Setup</​fs><​html></​center></​html>​
 +
 An OCT bulk scanner has been constructed that can create a 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm volume. It takes several A-scans until a row is complete, and then takes A-scans for the next row. This process is repeated until a cube has been populated. The size of this volume isn't sufficient to capture the entire cochlea, but several are taken and then the images are stitched together. This volume can then be turned into a surface model, which is useful for virtual fixtures. An OCT bulk scanner has been constructed that can create a 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm volume. It takes several A-scans until a row is complete, and then takes A-scans for the next row. This process is repeated until a cube has been populated. The size of this volume isn't sufficient to capture the entire cochlea, but several are taken and then the images are stitched together. This volume can then be turned into a surface model, which is useful for virtual fixtures.
  
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 {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​sideview_2.png?​nolink&​300 |}} {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​sideview_2.png?​nolink&​300 |}}
 +
 +<​html><​center></​html><​fs x-small>​Side-view Probe B-scan</​fs><​html></​center></​html>​
  
 A second virtual fixture involves the side-view probe'​s contours. These can be used to identify the center of the cochlea and location of the probe at several depths, and the virtual fixture guides the probe so that it is in the center of the cochlea at all depths. The side-view probe is currently very difficult to insert, so this virtual fixture will greatly help us get better B-scans. A second virtual fixture involves the side-view probe'​s contours. These can be used to identify the center of the cochlea and location of the probe at several depths, and the virtual fixture guides the probe so that it is in the center of the cochlea at all depths. The side-view probe is currently very difficult to insert, so this virtual fixture will greatly help us get better B-scans.
  
 {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​bulk_slice.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}} {{ :​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​bulk_slice.jpg?​nolink&​300 |}}
 +
 +<​html><​center></​html><​fs x-small>​Slice of Bulk Scan Volume</​fs><​html></​center></​html>​
  
 Another virtual fixture involves the volume obtained by the bulk OCT scanner. The model extrapolated from this volume can be used to identify the desired axis of insertion and point of insertion, which would then be used with our first virtual fixture to assist in inserting the implant. Instead of needing to insert and determine the desired location manually, it can be done automatically. This would allow us to find this point without expert guidance, which would be greatly helpful. Another virtual fixture involves the volume obtained by the bulk OCT scanner. The model extrapolated from this volume can be used to identify the desired axis of insertion and point of insertion, which would then be used with our first virtual fixture to assist in inserting the implant. Instead of needing to insert and determine the desired location manually, it can be done automatically. This would allow us to find this point without expert guidance, which would be greatly helpful.
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     * {{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​poster.pdf|}}     * {{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​poster.pdf|}}
   * Project Final Report   * Project Final Report
-    * {{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-X:​final_report.pdf|Final Report}}+    * {{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​final_report.pdf|}}
 ======Project Bibliography======= ======Project Bibliography=======
 [1] Coulson, C. J., Reid, A. P., Proops, D. W., & Brett, P. N. (2007). ENT challenges at the small scall. The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, (3), 91-96. [1] Coulson, C. J., Reid, A. P., Proops, D. W., & Brett, P. N. (2007). ENT challenges at the small scall. The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, (3), 91-96.
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 [7] Rau, T. S., Hussong, A., Leinung, M., Lenarz, T., & Majdani, O. (2010). Automated insertion of preformed cochlear implant electrodes: Evaluation of curling behaviour and insertion forces on an artificial cochlear model. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, (5), 173-181. [7] Rau, T. S., Hussong, A., Leinung, M., Lenarz, T., & Majdani, O. (2010). Automated insertion of preformed cochlear implant electrodes: Evaluation of curling behaviour and insertion forces on an artificial cochlear model. International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, (5), 173-181.
    
-[8] Zhang, J., Wei, W., Ding, J., Roland, J. T. J., Manolidis, S., & Simaan, N. (2010). Inroads toward robot-assisted cochlear implant surgery using steerable electrode arrays. Otology & Neurotology+[8] Zhang, J., Wei, W., Ding, J., Roland, J. T. J., Manolidis, S., & Simaan, N. (2010). Inroads toward robot-assisted cochlear implant surgery using steerable electrode arrays. Otology & Neurotology
 ======Other Resources and Project Files====== ======Other Resources and Project Files======
 Code SVN: [[https://​svn.lcsr.jhu.edu/​cochlear/​]] Code SVN: [[https://​svn.lcsr.jhu.edu/​cochlear/​]]
  
-Code ZIP File: +Code ZIP File: {{:​courses:​446:​2013:​446-2013-2:​codezip.zip|}}
courses/446/2013/446-2013-2/constructing_a_model_of_the_cochlea_from_oct_images.1368212127.txt.gz · Last modified: 2019/08/07 16:05 (external edit)




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